Unless otherwise specified, all numbers and rates pertain to place of residence (not occurrence).
- A group of people sharing a common temporal demographic experience who are observed through time. For example, the birth cohort of 1940 is the people born that year. Another example is school class cohort. In this case, Birth Cohorts are used. This means that in a given cohort year, all fetal deaths and births are accounted for. However any infant deaths that are linked to live births may have occurred in the cohort year or up to one year after. E.g. the 2014 birth cohort will include linked infant deaths that occurred in both 2014 and 2015.
The last grade of formal education completed. A sample calculation is Percentage
of Live Births to Females with Less than High School Education - The total
number of live births to females with less than a high school education, per 100
total live births. Formula = [Total Number of Live Births to Females with Less
than High School Education / Total Number of Live Births] * 100.
- Feto-Infant Mortality Rate (FIMR) and Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR)
- Feto-infant mortality rate (FIMR) is defined as the number of fetal deaths (>= 20 weeks gestation & 500+ grams) plus the number of infant deaths (500+ grams) divided by the total number of fetal deaths (>= 20 weeks gestation & 500+ grams) plus live births (500+ grams) and expressed as a rate per 1,000. Being a birth cohort measure, infant deaths are linked to live births of a given cohort year. This means that for example, the 2014 Rate of FIMR will have only 2014 Live Births and Fetal Deaths in the denominator, whereas the numerator has Infant Deaths from both 2014 and 2015 that were linked to 2014 Live Births (in addition to 2014 fetal deaths).
||Examples of Suggested Causes
||Examples of Suggested Interventions
||Unintended Pregnancy, Poor Nutrition, No Prenatal Care, Substance Abuse/Smoking, First or 4th-or-higher birth, Untreated STD's, < 2 year birth interval.
||Pre-conceptual, peri-conceptual and early prenatal interventions which affect the mother's health and increase birthweight. Examples include assuring good nutritional status including folic acid intake.
||Prenatal Care not matched to need.
||Prenatal, intra-partum and postpartum services which directly affect the maternal outcome by reducing excessive maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Assuring an appropriate match between need and content of prenatal care.
||Group B Strep untreated.
||Intra-partum, early neonatal, and postpartum services which directly affect the newborn outcome by reducing excessive early neonatal mortality and morbidity. These are chiefly biomedical interventions.
||No Parenting Skills Education, No Immunizations, No breastfeeding, Injury: Falls, burns, etc, Child Abuse / neglect, No Monitoring Growth / Development.
||Post discharge services which directly affect the infant outcome by reducing excessive post discharge mortality and morbidity. For example, SIDS and injury prevention through health education.
- Women's Health = [Number of Feto-Infant deaths related to Women's Health / (Births 500+ grams + Fetal Deaths >= 20 weeks and 500+ grams)] * 1,000
Maternal Care = [Number of deaths occurring to fetuses related to Maternal Care / (Births 500+ grams + Fetal Deaths >= 20 weeks and 500+ grams)] * 1,000
Newborn Care = [Number of infant deaths related to Newborn Care / (Births 500+ grams + Fetal Deaths >= 20 weeks and 500+ grams)] * 1,000
Infant Care = [Number of infant deaths related to Infant Care / (Births 500+ grams + Fetal Deaths >= 20 weeks and 500+ grams)] * 1,000
- International Classification of Diseases, 9th
Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)
A statistical classification system, in use since
1979, that arranges diseases and injuries into groups according to established
criteria. It is used to improve comparability of cause of death statistics
reported by different governmental entities. Most ICD-9-CM codes are numeric
and consist of three, four or five numbers and a description. The codes are
revised approximately every 10 years by the World Health Organization and
annual updates are published by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), now the Center for Medicare, Medicaid Services.
- International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, (ICD-10)
An alphanumeric coding scheme that replaces ICD-9,
and used for mortality data since 1999. ICD-10 codes were developed by the
World Health Organization Collaborating Centres for Classification of
- Per the Federal Office of Management and Budget, Directive 15 (1997),
- White is a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa;
- Black or African-American is a person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa;
- Asian is a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand and Vietnam;
- American Indian/Alaska Native is a person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment;
- Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander is a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands;
- Multiracial is a person declaring 2 or more of these races.
Any county with less than 35,000 total population per year 2000 Census.