Presentation Information

Confidentiality rule:
Numbers based on 0-4 events are classified as a separate static class when a sub-county level geography (Census Tract or County Commission District) is chosen. This, in addition to offering only non-overlapping 5-year aggregates is done to assure confidentiality.
Not Reportable
At the County level or higher rates (and percents) based on 1-4 events are not reported due to statistical reliability reasons. At sub-county level (Census Tract or County Commission District), rates and percents based on 0-4 are not reported. This assures confidentiality.
Trendable Maps
Trendable maps are a series of choropleth maps showing change in spatial distribution of data in a selected area over selected period of time. Trendable maps share the same data class breaks which allows easy comparison between each map in the series.
Trendable Maps

Mapping Units:

Visible Layers:

Census Tracts
Census Tracts are small, relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county or equivalent entity that are updated by local participants prior to each decennial census.
Census tracts generally have a population size between 1,200 and 8,000 people.  A census tract usually covers a contiguous area; however, the spatial size of census tracts varies widely depending on the density of settlement.  Census tract boundaries are delineated with the intention of being maintained over a long time so that statistical comparisons can be made from census to census.  Census tracts occasionally are split due to population growth or merged as a result of substantial population decline.
Census tract boundaries generally follow visible and identifiable features.  They may follow nonvisible legal boundaries, such as minor civil division (MCD) or incorporated place boundaries in some states and situations, to allow for census-tract-to-governmental-unit relationships where the governmental boundaries tend to remain unchanged between censuses.  State and county boundaries always are census tract boundaries in the standard census geographic hierarchy. Reference Source: U.S. Commerce Department, United States Census Bureau, accessed July 2011
A mix of both incorporated places (legal entities) and census designated places or CDPs (statistical entities). An incorporated place is established to provide governmental functions for a concentration of people. Places always nest within a state, but may extend across county and county subdivision boundaries. An incorporated place usually is a city, town, village, or borough, but can have other legal descriptions. CDPs are delineated to provide data for settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by name, but are not legally incorporated under the laws of the state in which they are located. Each dot represents the centroid of the geographical area of the city/town. Click on the dot to get the city or town name. Reference Source: U.S. Census, January 1, 2013
County Commission Districts
For more information, see The districts were established in 2014, and were obtained from the Association of County Commissioners of Georgia (ACCG). Further processing was performed by the Office of Health Indicators for Planning (OHIP) of the Georgia Department of Public Health. History and role: In 1868 the state began creating the position of county commissioner to administer the general operations of the county. Today every county has a commissioner; many have a board of commissioners (BOC). As part of general county operations, the BOC must finance county programs. A BOC has the power to adopt ordinances, resolutions, or regulations relating to county property, county affairs, and the operation of local government ( ).
GA House Districts
Electoral districts from which State Representatives are elected. The Georgia Constitution requires not less than 180 Representatives apportioned by population from representative districts. Layer Source: Georgia Legislative and Congressional Reapportionment Office, 2012.
Senate Districts
Electoral districts from which State Senators are elected. The Georgia Constitution limits the number to not more than 56 single member districts. Senate districts are apportioned based on population. Layer Source: Georgia Legislative and Congressional Reapportionment Office, 2012.
Hospitals are the non-Federal acute-care inpatient medical facilities in Georgia. Click on the symbol to get the name. Reference Source: Georgia Hospital Assoociation, 2012
Interstates are the freeways that are part of the Interstate Highway System in Georgia. The Interstate Highway System connects major cities within the United States. Click on the line to get the Interstate number. Layer Source: Esri, March 1, 2012
Major Roads
Major roads are a combination of both federal and state highways connecting cities and towns. Click on the line to get the route number. Layer Source: Esri, March 1, 2012
Perinatal Regions
The Perinatal Regions were established by the Department of Public Health in cooperation with the six teaching hospitals located in Atlanta, Albany, Augusta, Columbus, Macon and Savannah. The Regions reflect the hospital referral patterns for high risk pregnant women and newborns Each of the six hospitals has a Regional Perinatal Center which has contracts with the state and receives funding to care for high risk pregnant women and infants as well as to train staff from other hospitals in perinatal care especially for high risk patients. Reference Source: Georgia Department of Public Health, March 2005
ZIP Code
Established by the U.S. Postal Service for distribution of mail. Zip codes do not generally respect political boundaries or census areas such as tracts. Zip codes usually do not have clearly identifiable boundaries, often serve a continually changing area, are changed periodically to meet postal requirements, and do not cover all land area in the U.S. Layer Source: Esri, June 1, 2013

Base Layers:

Base layers are background information to provide contextual references for local-level maps. They are especially suited for tract-level maps and give real-world reference to maps you create in OASIS. There are three toggle-able (on/off) base layers:
Demographic Clusters
Demographic Clusters refer to the socioeconomic status classifications created by OHIP, and are at the census block-group level. More information here:
Aerial Photography
Aerial Photography refers to ESRI's World Imagery.
Street Map
Street Map refers to ESRI's World Street Map with street-level data for North America.
Currently these Base Layers are not available when you Save/Print map.

Data Classification Methods:

Natural Breaks (Jenks)
This method minimizes within-class variance and maximizes between-class variance in an iterative series of calculations. This method seeks to partition data into classes based on natural groups in the data distribution. Natural breaks occur in the histogram at the low points of valleys. Breaks are assigned in the order of the size of the valleys, with the largest valley being assigned the first natural break.
George F. Jenks is considered a pioneer in GIS educational programs. Through an award from the Fund for Advancement of Science, Jenks identified four key objectives for cartographic training. Robert McMaster and Susanna McMaster; A History of Twentieth-Century American Academic Cartography
Source: Brewer and Pickle. Evaluation of Methods for Classifying Epidemiological Data on Choropleth Maps in a Series. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92(4), 2002, pp. 662-681.
The quantiles method of classification is provided because: Source: Brewer and Pickle. Evaluation of Methods for Classifying Epidemiological Data on Choropleth Maps in a Series. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92(4), 2002, pp. 662-681.


Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC)
Conditions that respond to timely and effective care in the outpatient (ambulatory) setting. ACSC's are used as Prevention Quality Indicators, and can assist in evaluating quality or use of primary health care.
Formula = [The number of ACSC's discharges (or ER visits) / The total number of discharges (or ER visits)] * 100
While primarily intended for application to hospital inpatient data, we have applied to ER Visit data as well.

codes in brackets. (By Primary Diagnosis Unless Otherwise Noted,
Secondary diagnoses are all other available diagnosis)
Congenital Syphilis A50 [090] Secondary diagnosis for newborns only
Failure to thrive R62.51, R62.52, R62.0, R62.50 [783.41] Age < 1 Year
Dental Conditions K02, K03, K04, K05, K06.0, K06.1, K06.2, K08, K12, K13, M27.6, A69.0, K09.8 [521-523,525,528]  
Vaccine Preventable Conditions/Immunization-related and preventable conditions A33, A34, A35, A37, A80, G00.0, I01 [032,033,037,041.5,045,052.1,052.9,055-056,070.0-070.3,072, 320.2*, 320.3,390,391,771.0] *Hemophilus meningitis G00.2 [320.2] for ages 1-5 only
Iron Deficiency Anemia D50.1, D50.8, D50.9 [280.1,280.8,280.9] Age 0-5 only. Primary & Secondary Diagnoses
Nutritional Deficiencies E40, E41, E43, E55.0, E64.3 [260-262,268.0,268.1] Primary & Secondary Diagnoses
Bacterial Pneumonia J13, J14, J153, J154, J157, J159, J16, J18 [481,482.2,482.3,482.9,483,485,486] Exclude case with secondary diagnosis of sickle cell D57 and patients < 2 months
Cancer of the Cervix [180.0-180.1, 180.8-180.9] No Longer an ACSC in ICD10
Cellulitis L03, L04, L08, L88, L98.0 [681,682,683,686] Excludes cases with a surgical procedure starting with 0 or 1, [01-86.99], except incision of skin and subcutaneous tissue 0H, 0J, 0W, OX, [86.0] where it is the only listed surgical procedure
Convulsions R56 [780.3]  
Dehydration  - Volume Depletion  E86 [276.5] Primary & Secondary Diagnoses examined separately
Gastroenteritis K52.9, K52.89 [558.9]  
Hypoglycemia E16.2 [251.2]  
Kidney/Urinary Infection N10, N11, N12 [590.0,599.0,599.9]  
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease N70, N73 [614] Exclude cases with a surgical procedure of hysterectomy 0UT
Severe Ear, Nose, & Throat Infections H66, J02, J03, J06, J31.2 [382*,462,463,465,472.1] *Excludes otitis media H66, H67 [382] cases with myringotomy with insertion of tube C83.5 [20.01]1
Skin Grafts with Cellulitis {DRGs: 263 & 264} For 2008: {DRGs: 573, 574, 575} Excludes admissions from SNF/ICF
Angina I20, I24.0, I24.8, I24.9 [411.1,411.8,413] Excludes cases with a surgical procedure 0 or 1 [01-86.99]1
Asthma J45 [493]
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease J20, J40, J41, J42, J43, J44, J47 [466.0*,491,492,494,496] *Includes acute bronchitis J20.9 [466.0] only with secondary diagnosis of J41, J42, J43, J44, J47 [491,492,494,496]
Congestive Heart Failure I50, I11.0, J81.0 [402.01,402.11,402.91,428,518.4] Excludes cases with the following surgical procedures: 02 [36.01,36.02,36.05,36.1,37.5 or 37.7]1
Diabetes with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or other coma E10.1, E13.1, E11.0, E13.0, E10.641, E11.641 [250.1-250.33]  
Diabetes with other specified or unspecified complications E10.6, E11.6, E10.8, E11.8 [250.8-250.93]  
Diabetes mellitus without mention of complications or unspecified hypoglycemia E10.9, E11.9 [250-250.04]  
Grand Mal & Other Epileptic Conditions G40 [345]  
Hypertension I10, I11.9 [401.0,401.9,402.00,402.10,402.90] Excludes cases with the following procedures: 02 [36.01,36.02,36.05,36.1,37.5 or 37.7]
Tuberculosis (Non-Pulmonary) A15.4, A15.6, A15.8, A17, A18, A19 [012-018]  
Pulmonary Tuberculosis A15.0, A15.5, A15.9 [011]  

1 Procedure codes: For ICD9, not all records used ICD9 procedure codes.

Please note: Some records may have more than one ACSC, in which case the first discovered is reported.

Ages are presented by Detailed Age Groups, Lifestages and Single Year of Age which is created by the Department of Public Health, OHIP. Also, note that selecting "all ages" will supercede any start and end age selection. Uncheck "all ages" to make an age-specific selection.
Data Classes
Also referred to as "class breaks" or groupings of data.
Discharges/ER Visits
The number of discharges/ER Visits from non-Federal acute-care inpatient facilities. Only discharges/visits of Georgia residents who were seen in a Georgia facility are included. Persons can be counted more than once if readmitted. Discharges/visits include people both living and who have died.
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)
A statistical classification system, in use since 1979, that arranges diseases and injuries into groups according to established criteria. It is used to improve comparability of cause of death statistics reported by different governmental entities. Most ICD-9-CM codes are numeric and consist of three, four or five numbers and a description. The codes are revised approximately every 10 years by the World Health Organization and annual updates are published by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), now the Center for Medicare, Medicaid Services.
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) vs. ICD10
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), the Federal agency responsible for use of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10) in the United States, has developed a clinical modification (CM) of the classification for morbidity (hospital and ER data) purposes. The ICD-10 is used to code and classify mortality data from death certificates, having replaced ICD-9 for this purpose as of January 1, 1999. ICD-10-CM is the replacement for ICD-9-CM, effective October 1, 2015 in discharge and ER data.
The ICD-10 is copyrighted by the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO has authorized the development of an adaptation of ICD-10 for use in the United States (ICD-10-CM). All modifications to the ICD-10 must conform to WHO conventions for the ICD.
Payor is the primary entity responsible for payment of services. Values for Payor include:
Percent ACSC Discharges/ER Visits
Formula = [The number of ACSC's discharges (or ER visits) / The total number of discharges (or ER visits)] * 100
Per the Federal Office of Management and Budget, Directive 15 (1997),

Note: Rates for years prior to year 2000 use population estimates for the denominator that adhere to a different Federal standard for race: White, Black, Asian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian and Alaska Native. So, unlike years 2000 and after, Multiracial is not included. Also, Asian by itself is not available because it was grouped with Pacific Islander (After 1999 Asian is separate from Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander).

Rates using Census Population Estimates in the denominator are not calculated when a selected race is not available in the denominator, or zero.

Nevertheless, selections available in OASIS' Race query box reflect the 1997 Race classifications described above. Most of the numerators used in indicators in Oasis *do* have the year 2000 race selections. Therefore, selections of multiple years that span <2000 and 2000+ will return a *number (count)* for all race selections, but the *rates* may be limited by the change in racial classifications the federal government used as noted above. In these cases you will see NA1 in the output cell (NA1 therefore by definition will only show up in rates for the years before 2000).

In some cases, the numerator's race classification may be more precise, or up to date, than the Census population estimate counterpart used in the denominator. You may find that there are a number of births of a given race for a county/age-group selection, but no count of population estimated for the denominator. In such cases where the race selection was available for both the numerator and the denominator, but the denominator's estimate was zero, you will see a NA2. If the numerator was greater than the denominator, but the denominator was > 0, you will see a NA3 returned.

Map Tools

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V1.5 (05/29/2018)